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药企回扣账本公开 打击行贿行为还需与违法退市制度挂钩_366行业资讯网

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药企回扣账本公开 打击行贿行为还需与违法退市制度挂钩

????近日,财政部会同医保局成立部际协调工作组,将于6月至7月开展医药行业会计信息质量检查工作,抽取的77家医药企业检查名单中,包括复星医药、恒瑞医药、步长制药等多家A股上市公司。笔者认为,这将为公众解开医药企业财报是否存在财务数据注水、销售回扣等敏感疑问。据了解,此次财政部重点检查医药企业费用、成本和收入的真实性,其中包括是否存在以咨询费、会议费、住宿费、交通费等各类发票套取大额现金,通过专家咨询费、研发费、宣传费等方式向医务人员支付回扣或销售返点等现象。此前证监会表示,已初步查明康美药业披露的2016至2018年财务报告存在重大虚假,这说明一些医药企业财务造假问题存在。另一方面,一些上市药企销售费用过高等问题也受到监管关注,比如去年某上市药企营业总收入136.65亿元,销售费用竟高达80.36亿元;该公司在回复上交所问询时披露了巨额销售费用去向,其中包括2018年度公司共组织市场活动19000余场次,将销售费用归于正常的商业推广。显然如此回复仍难解市场人士疑惑。此前,医药企业已曝出多起向医务人员行贿、给予回扣案件,并被法院判决,显示药品回扣、返点问题严重。药品回扣,是当前社会普遍关注和极为反感的问题,它破坏了医药行业良性竞争秩序,导致劣币驱逐良币,甚至假冒伪劣药品霸占市场,还进一步导致药品价格抬升、医生为患者滥用药物等问题,极大加重了患者药费负担,恶化了医患关系,影响社会和谐稳定。逐利的资本市场,或许很难解决药品回扣等问题。一些投资者留恋或陶醉于医药板块所谓的防御属性,股东对上市药企利润的盲目追求,由此可能对上市公司以回扣抢占市场行为不闻不问,甚至纵容,导致上市公司枉顾社会责任,也就是说,上市公司的内部治理对此可能失效。只有对上市公司施加外部压力,才能解决医药回扣这个痼疾,此次财政部及医保局对医药行业会计信息质量开展检查,无疑是敲山震虎之举,也可揭开药企账本背后藏着的猫腻。从证券监管的角度,也应思考如何才能引导上市公司更好履行社会责任,防止损害社会公共利益或群众根本利益的行为。证券市场奉行“公平、公正、公开”的三公原则,行贿、回扣这些见不得光的行为,显然严重违背了“三公”原则,甚至构成违法违规。证券市场要反贿赂,关键要催生上市公司股东反贿赂的内在压力,为此不仅要让行贿受贿者付出应有代价,而且要让上市公司股东为此付出一定代价,而最有威慑的办法莫过于与重大违法退市制度挂上钩。去年公布的重大违法退市制度,规定重大违法退市主要包括两大类情形,一是上市公司存在欺诈发行、重大信披违法或其他严重损害证券市场秩序的重大违法行为;二是存在涉及国家安全、公共安全、生态安全、生产安全和公众健康安全等领域的违法行为。上市药企即便其生产的药品不属于假冒伪劣,但没有什么疗效,仍通过向医务人员回扣、返点等违法违规手段,流入患者手中并服用,这将影响或耽误患者的正常治疗和生命健康,同样属于谋财误命,对于回扣数额巨大、销售额巨大的上市药企,同样可认定其危害“公众健康安全”,进而认定为重大违法、强制退市。将上市公司及其员工的行贿行为与重大违法退市制度挂钩,上市公司、董监高、普通员工,尤其是股东,才可能对此高度重视,形成内部制约,证券市场反贿赂的内在动力就将极大增强,由此可引领带动各行各业的反商业贿赂工作向纵深推进。□熊锦秋(财经评论人)编辑 陈莉 校对 刘军

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